Neuroimmunology is a field of medicine combining neurology – science about nervous system and immunology – science about immunity. The goal of neuroimmunology is to understand the interactions between these complex systems in time of development, homeostasis and in response to pathology in human body.
The aspiring intent of this discipline is to expand our understanding about causes of some neurologic disorders with unknown etiology. Neuroimmunology promotes the introduction of new pharmacologic therapeutic agents into clinical neurology to treat a broad spectrum of disorders. There is a continuous communication between nervous and immune systems as in healthy organisms, as also in pathological conditions.
Immune cells, neuro-immune molecules like cytokines, chemokines and grow factors are providing lifelong modulation of cerebral activity through different pathways. Immunological, physiological and psychological stressors are causing cytokines and other immune molecules to interact as mediators with neuroendocrine and neuropeptide systems.
Cytokines and chemokines are influencing synaptic plasticity and other processes in central nervous system which can change during the aging process. Finally the interaction between immune molecules and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is indicating than neuroimmune system influences brain activity and behavior that creates sexual difference.