CNS demyelinating disorders is a condition characterized by damage to myelin surrounding nerve cells in the brain or spinal cord. When damage to myelin occur nerve conduction is blocked or slowed down which gives rise to neurologic symptomatic. Differential diagnosis between demyelinating conditions is difficult because symptoms and radiologic signs are very similar but it’s essential to make right diagnosis because treatment strategies are different.
Etiology of demyelinating disorders is not fully understood. Multiple hypotheses exist but probably etiology of demyelinating disorders is combined and includes genetic factors, autoimmune reactions, infections and unknown factors. There is no any etiologic hypothesis fully proven.
CNS demyelinating disorders include:
- Multiple sclerosis
- Neuromyelitis optica or Devic’s disease
- Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis